Precise Monitoring and Fast TAT Makes SGS Your
NEW! SGS is now accredited for EPA 522, ultra-low level 1,4-Dioxane in drinking water!
SGS supports a wide array of methods for 1,4 – Dioxane including 522, 8260, 8260 SIM, 8270, and 8270 SIM. Our ability to provide rapid turn-around- time and accurate data, no matter what method or detection limit is needed, makes SGS the laboratory you should depend on for 1,4 – Dioxane analysis.
According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1,4-Dioxane is a likely human carcinogen and has been found in groundwater at sites throughout the United States. The physical and chemical properties and behavior of 1,4-dioxane create challenges for its characterization and treatment. It is highly mobile and does not readily biodegrade in the environment.
Where Do You Find 1,4-Dioxane?
Used as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and tetrachloroethene (PCE), it is used in many products including paint strippers, dyes, greases, varnishes, and waxes. 1,4-Dioxane has also been found as an impurity in antifreeze, aircraft deicing fluids and in some consumer products such as deodorants, shampoos, and cosmetics.
Federal and State Standards and Guidelines
- The EPA calculated screening level for tap water is 0.46 μg/L.
- The EPA calculated residential soil screening level is 5.3 mg/kg and the industrial soil screening level is 24 mg/kg.
- The EPA calculated residential air screening level is 0.56 ug/m3 and has an industrial air screening level of 2.5 ug/m3. (Nov 2015)
- The soil-to-groundwater risk-based soil screening level (SSL) is 0.000094 mg/kg or 0.094 ug/kg.
- The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set 500 mg/L as the concentration that is immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) and recommended 1 mg/L as the airborne exposure
- State regulators often use drinking water action levels and health advisories to establish site cleanup goals, and more and more states are requiring lower limits for 1,4-Dioxane. Cleanup levels vary by state, ranging from 3 to 50 μg/L in drinking water. Colorado has established an interim groundwater quality cleanup standard of 0.35 μg/L. New Jersey has established an interim groundwater quality cleanup standard of 0.4 μg/L.
Detection and Site Characterization Method
The poor purge efficiency by the conventional 8260 method produces sensitivity levels that are 20-100 times greater for 1,4-dioxane than those of conventional VOCs. As a result of the poor sensitivity by conventional 8260 and ever lower federal and local standards, modifications to existing sample preparation procedures and additional methods have been implemented to achieve increased sensitivity.
SGS is Precise and Fast for 1,4 Dioxane Analysis
As seen below, SGS supports a wide array of methods for analyzing 1,4-Dioxane including 8260, 8260 SIM, 8270, and 8270 SIM. Our ability to provide rapid turn-around-time and accurate data, makes SGS the laboratory you should depend on for 1,4 – Dioxane analysis.
1,4-DIOXANE ANALYSIS METHODS
|Methods||Sample Size||Reporting Limit||Brief Description|
|SW846 8260||5 ml||25-200 ug/L||Conventional purge and trap, full scan, 14 day hold time|
|SW846 8260-SIM||5 ml||1-2 ug/L||Heated purge-and-trap, SIM analysis, 14 day hold time|
|5 ml||0.3-1 ug/L||Heated purge-and-trap, SIM analysis, deuterated ISTD, 14 day hold time|
|SW846 8270||1L||1-5 ug/L||Liquid-liquid extraction, 8270 analysis, 7 day hold time|
|SW846 8270- SIM||1L||0.2-1 ug/L||Liquid-liquid extraction, SIM analysis, 7 day hold time|
|SW846 8270 SIM
|1L||0.1-.2 ug/L||Liquid-liquid extraction, SIM analysis Isotope Dilution, 7 day hold time|
|EPA 522 SPE Isotope Dilution||0.1-0.5L||Ultra-low reporting limit SPE isotope-dilution GC-MS SIM for drinking water testing|
|Air analysis by Summa, full scan, 30 day hold time|
|mod NIOSH 1602; GC/FID||0.5 – 15L||5 ug||OSHA PEL: 100 ppm (TWA) ACGIH TLV: 20 ppm (TWA)
NIOSH REL: 1 ppm (Ceiling)
|mod NIOSH 1602; GC/FID BADGE||15 min –
|5 ug||OSHA PEL: 100 ppm (TWA) ACGIH TLV: 20 ppm (TWA)
NIOSH REL: 1 ppm (Ceiling)
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF 1,4-DIOXANE
|Names||1,4-Dioxane, 1,4-Dioxacyclohexane, p-Dioxane, -crown-2|
|Molecular weight (g/mol)||88.11|
|Water solubility (mg/L at 25oC)||Soluble in water|
|Boiling point (oC)||101.1 °C; 214.0 °F; 374.2 K|
|Melting point||11.8 °C; 53.2 °F; 284.9 K|
|Flash point||12 °C; 54 °F; 285 K|
|Vapor pressure at 25oC (mm Hg)||38.1|
|Octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow)||-0.27|
|Organic carbon partition coefficient (log Koc)||1.23|
|Henry’s Law constant at 25 oC (atm cm3/mol)||4.80 X 10-6|
Notes: g/mol – grams per mole; mg/L – milli-grams per liter; oC – degrees Celsius; mm Hg – millimeters of mercury; atm m3/mol – atmos-phere-cubic centimeters per mole.